Robb, M.D., Nelson L. Michael, M.D., Ph.D., Prayura Kunasol, M.D., and Jerome H. Kim, M.D.1-3 Initially, these groups consisted of injection-drug users and commercial sex workers; they were expanded to include persons in the general population subsequently. By 1995, the entire seroprevalence of HIV-1 reached a peak of 3.7 percent among conscripts in the Royal Thai Army and of 12.5 percent among conscripts from Northern Thailand.2,4,5 The Thai Ministry of Public Health responded with an effective HIV-prevention campaign, and the true number of new HIV-1 infections per year decreased from an estimated 143,000 in 1990 to 14,000 in 2007.2,4,6-9 The persistence of fresh infection despite these measures led public health officials to conclude an HIV vaccine, within the context of a broader HIV-prevention program, was needed for better control of the epidemic.14-18 A series of phase 1 and 2 trials of HIV vaccines involving more than 1000 Thai volunteers was undertaken, with products matching the circulating HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE and B.8,17-22 Although a stage 3 trial of VaxGen bivalent gp120 AIDSVAX B/E vaccine alone involving injection-medication users showed no influence on HIV-1 acquisition,21 a stage 2 trial of an ALVAC-HIV prime with an AIDSVAX B/E boost showed induction of prespecified cellular and humoral immune responses and was in keeping with requirements for advancement to a big test-of-concept study.in October 2003 17, our study was initiated in a inhabitants at community risk for HIV infection.Supernatant was cleared from cellular particles by low-acceleration centrifugation, and virus was filtered through a 0. We used OmniCleave endonuclease to eliminate free of charge DNA and RNA, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Viral RNA was extracted from supernatants in infected cell cultures by using a higher Pure RNA Isolation Kit . To remove mammalian ribosomal RNA, we used Ribo-Zero rRNA Removal Kit RZH110424 , according to the manufacturer’s protocol. RNA underwent invert transcription by using circular permuted primers11 that were prolonged with random hexamer sequences. DNA was amplified by way of PCR with the circular permuted primers.